Monday, September 3, 2012

SierraCharts Daily Report 30th August 2012 S&P 500 Emini Futures

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text Courtesy Of Wikipedia
One of the key developments in the history of ECNs was the NASDAQ over-the-counter quotation system. NASDAQ was created following a 1969 American Stock Exchange study which estimated that errors in the processing of hand-written securities orders cost brokerage firms approximately $100 million per year. The NASDAQ system automated such order processing and provided brokers with the latest competitive price quotes via a computer terminal. In March 1994, a study by two economists, William Christie and Paul Schultz, noted that NASDAQ bid-ask spreads were larger than was statistically likely, indicating "We are unable to envision any scenario in which 40 to 60 dealers who are competing for order flow would simultaneously and consistently avoid using odd-eighth quotes without an implicit agreement to post quotes only on the even price fractions. However, our data do not provide direct evidence of tacit collusion among NASDAQ market makers." These results led to an antitrust lawsuit being filed against NASDAQ. As part of NASDAQ's settlement of the antitrust charges, NASDAQ adopted new order handling rules that integrated ECNs into the NASDAQ system. Shortly after this settlement, the SEC adopted Regulation ATS, which permitted ECNs the option of registering as stock exchanges or else being regulated under a separate set of standards for ECNs.[2][3]
At that time major ECNs that became active were Instinet and Island (part of Instinet was spun off, merged with Island into Inet, and acquired by NASDAQ), Archipelago Exchange (which was acquired by the NYSE) and Brut (now acquired by NASDAQ).
ECNs enjoyed a resurgence after the adoption of SEC Regulation NMS, which required "trade through" protection of orders in the market, regardless of where those orders are placed.After-hours trading is stock trading that occurs after the traditional trading hours of the major exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq Stock Market. Since 1985, the regular trading hours in the United States have been from 9:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time (ET).[1]

Example chart of extended hours trading, via Google Finance
Trading outside these regular hours is not a new phenomenon but previously was limited to high net-worth investors and institutional investors like mutual funds.[2] The emergence of private trading systems, known as electronic communication networks or ECNs, has allowed individual investors to participate in after-hours trading.
After-hours trading on a day with a normal session occurs from 4:00 to 8:00 p.m. ET.[3]
After-hours trading is frequently abbreviated on message boards as AH. That has led people to jokingly refer to after-hours trading as "amateur hour", as the people who trade during that time are mostly small retail traders and not institutional investors, and, barring material news, it frequently does not reflect how trading will be the next morning.[citation needed]
Trading also occurs before the traditional trading hours and is known as pre-market trading. Pre-market trading occurs from 7:00 to 9:30 a.m. ET.[4]
National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) members who voluntarily enter quotations during the after-hours session are required to comply with all applicable limit order protection and display rules (e.g., the Manning rule and the SEC order handling rules)