Saturday, June 23, 2012

Crude Oil (playlist)

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Creative Commons Courtesy Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Petroleum (disambiguation).
Proven world oil reserves, 2009
Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas An oil refinery in Mina-Al-Ahmadi, KuwaitPetroleum (L. petroleum, from Greek: petra (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)[1][2]) or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.
Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures).[3][4] It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.[5] Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials,[6] and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day.
The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, releasing pollutants and greenhouse gases into the air and damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills. Concern over the depletion of the earth's finite reserves of oil, and the effect this would have on a society dependent on it, is a field known as peak oil.
Contents 1 Etymology
2 Composition
3 Chemistry
4 Empirical equations for thermal properties
4.1 Heat of combustion
4.2 Thermal conductivity
4.3 Specific heat
4.4 Latent heat of vaporization
5 Formation
6 Reservoirs
6.1 Crude oil reservoirs
6.2 Unconventional oil reservoirs
7 Classification
8 Petroleum industry
9 History
10 Price
11 Uses
11.1 Fuels
11.2 Other derivatives
11.3 Agriculture
12 Petroleum by country
12.1 Consumption statistics
12.2 Consumption
12.3 Production
12.4 Export
12.5 Import
12.6 Import to the USA by country 2010
12.7 Non-producing consumers
13 Environmental effects
13.1 Global warming
13.2 Extraction
13.3 Oil spills
13.4 Tarballs
13.5 Whales
14 Alternatives to petroleum
14.1 Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicle fuels
14.2 Alternatives to using oil in industry
14.3 Alternatives to burning petroleum for electricity
15 Future of petroleum production
15.1 Peak oil
16 See also
17 Notes
18 References
19 External links
EtymologyThe word "petroleum" comes from Greek: πέτρα (petra) for rock and Greek: ἔλαιον (elaion) for oil. The term was found (in the spelling "petraoleum") in 10th-century Old English sources.[7] It was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, also known as Georgius Agricola.[8] In the 19th century, the term "petroleum" was frequently used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal (and later oil shale), and refined oils produced from them; in these oils were regulated by a series of Petroleum Acts, from the Petroleum Act 1862 c. 66 onward.

[edit] CompositionIn its strictest sense, petroleum includes only crude oil, but in common usage it includes all liquid, gaseous, and solid (e.g., paraffin) hydrocarbons. Under surface pressure and temperature conditions, lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethane, propane and butane occur as gases, while pentane and heavier ones are in the form of liquids or
An oil well produces predominantly crude oil, with some natural gas underground, some of the gas will come out of solution and be recovered (or burned) as associated gas or solution gas. A gas well produces predominantly natural gas. However, because the underground temperature and pressure are higher than at the surface, the gas may contain heavier hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexane, and heptane in the gaseous state. At surface conditions these will condense out of the gas to form natural gas